Published in 2012 by the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization
© UNESCO / ICCROM / ICOMOS / IUCN, 2012
All rights reserved.
| ||Edition:|| ||2012|| |
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| ||Published by:|| ||UNESCO|| |
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| ||Table of contents:|
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| || || ||1. Introduction and glossary|| 9|
| || || ||2. Context||20|
| || || ||3. Planing||35|
| || || ||4. Capacity||48|
| || || ||5. Management processes||57|
| || || ||6. Delivering results||73|
| || || ||Resources||84|
| || || ||Appendices||90|
| || || ||Contact informations||98|
This Resource Manual has a specific purpose: helping to manage natural1 values within World Heritage properties.2 As such it is aimed at natural and mixed World Heritage properties as well as cultural landscapes (inscribed under cultural criteria). The intention is to help managers understand and incorporate World Heritage concepts and processes into natural site management. It is hoped that all natural World Heritage managers and staff will find useful guidance here and will be inspired to explore the many resources highlighted. Many of the management principles described will apply to any type of protected area, but here special emphasis is given to those management considerations most relevant to World Heritage status.
The Resource Manual is aimed at anyone with an interest in World Heritage, in particular:
1. Those responsible for managing natural World Heritage sites.
2. Managers and staff of protected areas (e.g. national parks, nature reserves, wilderness areas, indigenous and community conserved areas, etc.) that contain, or are contained, within World Heritage sites. These are often, but not always, the same people as above.
3. Local communities and indigenous peoples engaged in managing or co-managing World Heritage properties.
4. Institutions (e.g. governments, intergovernmental bodies and national or international non-governmental organizations) charged with sectoral responsibilities, involved in running conservation or development projects in and around natural World Heritage sites.
5. Communities and individuals living in or near a natural World Heritage site, or likely to be impacted by its designation and management, who want to understand or be involved in its management.
6. Businesses operating in or alongside a natural World Heritage site, including particularly those with operations based on the values of the site itself (e.g. tourism based on rare or iconic species, such as mountain gorillas, or important landscapes and geological features, etc.).
Scope and purpose of the Resource Manual
No single publication can explain everything about managing natural World Heritage, as that would require a sizeable and constantly expanding library rather than one slim volume. Instead the focus is on clarifying questions that are likely to be particular or unique to World Heritage and either supplying relevant information directly or, where further detail is required, explaining where this information can be found. No prior knowledge of World Heritage processes is assumed, thus a glossary is included to help steer users through the complex web of acronyms and technical terms that accompany World Heritage status and management.
The Resource Manual is structured around a management effectiveness framework (Figure 1) developed by IUCN for its work on management effectiveness of protected areas.6 This framework identifies six stages within the management process: (1) understanding the context of the site by reviewing existing values, threats and stakeholders, thus providing the background for (2) planning site management and (3) the allocation of resources and other inputs, all of which result in (4) a series of management processes which go on to produce (5) outputs, i.e. goods and services that result in (6) conservation impacts or outcomes. The framework enshrines the concept of adaptive management, which is alert to changing conditions and seeks continual improvement. Five sections of the manual (as stages 5 and 6 of the framework have been combined) are based on the key themes of this management cycle and each includes a series of case studies.
After this introductory section the Resource Manual goes on to deal with context issues (Section 2) and reviews the concept of Outstanding Universal Value (2.1) and the development of a Statement of Outstanding Universal Value (2.2), which should describe the overall purpose and direction of management. Two other issues influencing the type and focus of management are also reviewed: threats to the site and its OUV (2.3 and 2.4) and the involvement of local people in management (2.5).
Good planning (Section 3) is fundamental for effective management. The art of World Heritage management is based on taking the contextual information outlined in Section 2 with the legal frameworks that underscore the planning process (3.1), the development of management plans (3.2) and recommendations on site management made in World Heritage Committees (3.3). This section also includes a short discussion of boundaries (3.4) which have specific processes associated with World Heritage listing.
Closely linked to the planning process is the need to ensure a site has the capacity (Section 4), i.e. the inputs and resources such as finances and expertise, to implement the planned management activities. Development of a sustainable financial basis for management is covered in 4.1, while the options for dedicated financial support available to World Heritage sites are introduced in 4.2. Staff training and development is discussed in 4.3.
Even with good planning and sufficient resources, effective conservation at a World Heritage site will only be achieved if the management processes (Section 5) in place are based on best possible practices. As the range of management skills required by managers of World Heritage sites can sometimes seem overwhelming, this Resource Manual focuses on three management areas of greatest relevance to the implementation of the World Heritage Convention: sustainable use and benefit sharing (5.1), education and interpretation (5.2) and tourism (5.3).
Section 6, on delivering results, combines the outputs and outcomes elements of the management framework in Figure 1, looking at the two fundamental components that need to be in place for managers to know if they are achieving their management objectives and conserving the World Heritage site’s OUV: monitoring (6.1) and research (6.2). It then reviews the various processes in place for site managers to report the results of their management to the World Heritage Committee (6.3). Section 6.4 returns to the IUCN management effectiveness framework by introducing the concept of management effectiveness and the Enhancing our Heritage Toolkit; a methodology developed specifically for use in natural World Heritage sites.
Resources (p. 84), which lists the main World Heritage and associated documents by section, with links to where they can be found, is followed by four appendices. Appendix 1 summarizes a set of indicators that have been included throughout the Resource Manual. The Periodic Reporting questionnaire for World Heritage properties (outlined in Section 6.3) asks if key indicators for measuring the state of conservation are used in monitoring, and how the Outstanding Universal Value of the property is being maintained. As few natural World Heritage sites currently have such indicators, a series of possible indicators is suggested in relevant places throughout the text along with questions in the Periodic Reporting format. Appendix 2 complements the resources for each section with a more detailed list of tools that may be useful for World Heritage site managers. Appendix 3 relates to Section 5.3 and reproduces the Principles for Sustainable Tourism at World Heritage Properties. Many World Heritage sites have other inter national designations, for example they may be a Ramsar (Convention on Wetlands) recognized wetland, a Biosphere Reserve or have had a management category assigned to them using the IUCN category system. Appendix 4 briefly reviews the relationships between these designations and systems and World Heritage designation. A final section, Contact information, provides details of helpful organizations for further advice and guidance.